Generalidades de las principales urgencias en el paciente oncológico: revisión de tema

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Contenido principal del artículo

Mateo Zuluaga Gómez
  • Biografía

    Hospital Universitario San Vicente Fundación, Rionegro, Colombia. Salud SURA. Medellín, Colombia.

Mabel Dahiana Roldan Tabares
  • Biografía

    Facultad de Medicina, Grupo de Investigación de Medicina Interna - Línea de Hematología, Universidad Pontificia Bolivariana. Medellín, Colombia.

     

Felipe Baena Gallego
  • Biografía

    Universidad CES. Medellín, Colombia.

Santiago Upegui Estrada
  • Biografía

    Universidad CES. Medellín, Colombia.

Resumen

Las urgencias oncológicas son complicaciones comunes de la evolución natural del tumor o de su manejo. Algunas pueden presentarse de manera sutil y ser pasadas por alto, lo que aumenta la morbimortalidad. El objetivo de esta revisión narrativa es recopilar información actualizada de las principales complicaciones oncológicas, para ello se realizó una revisión de artículos originales, revisiones sistemáticas y narrativas en bases de datos como Scopus, SciELO, PubMed, ScienceDirect y en el buscador Google Scholar. Se seleccionaron 63 referencias que mostraran información relevante acerca de las urgencias oncológicas planteadas para el desarrollo del artículo. En la revisión se discute que las complicaciones pueden clasificarse de acuerdo con su origen en infecciosas (neutropenia febril), metabólicas (síndrome de lisis tumoral e hipercalcemia


maligna) y obstructivas (síndrome de vena cava superior, obstrucción intestinal, compresión medular y taponamiento cardiaco). El diagnóstico requiere un alto índice de sospecha, el médico debe tener la capacidad resolutiva y el conocimiento necesarios para el manejo y hacer uso racional de los recursos diagnósticos. Es necesario adoptar medidas terapéuticas que impacten positivamente en el pronóstico y que reduzcan la morbimortalidad.

Palabras clave:
febrile neutropenia, tumor lysis syndrome, cardiac tamponade, intestinal obstruction, spinal cord compression neutropenia febril, síndrome de lisis tumoral, taponamiento cardiaco, obstrucción intestinal, compresión de la médula espinal neutropenia febril, síndrome de lise tumoral, entupimento cardíaco, obstrução intestinal, compressão da medula espinal

Detalles del artículo

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