Sistemas de activación y de inhibición de conducta y su relación con el funcionamiento ejecutivo en excombatientes irregulares del conflicto armado colombiano

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Contenido principal del artículo

David Andrés Montoya Arenas
  • Biografía

    Universidad Pontificia Bolivariana, Escuela de Ciencias Sociales, Facultad de Psicología, Grupo de Investigación ECCO. Medellín, Colombia.

    Grupo de Neuropsicología y Conducta UDEA-USB. Medellín, Colombia.

Ángela María Pareja
  • Biografía

    Grupo de Neuropsicología y Conducta (GRUNECO), Universidad de San Buenaventura, Medellín Colombia.

Ana María Valencia
  • Biografía

    Grupo de Neuropsicología y Conducta (GRUNECO), Universidad de San Buenaventura, Medellín Colombia.

Cecilia María Díaz Soto
  • Biografía

    Escuela de Graduados, Universidad CES. Becaria Colciencias, convocatoria 757 de 2016. Medellín, Colombia.

Natalia Trujillo Orrego
  • Biografía

    Facultad Nacional de Salud Pública, Universidad de Antioquia (UDEA). Medellín, Colombia.

David Antonio Pineda Salazar
  • Biografía

    Grupo de Neuropsicología y Conducta (GRUNECO), Universidad de San Buenaventura, Medellín Colombia.

Resumen

Objetivo: Explorar la relación entre los sistemas de activación de conducta (SAC) / sistema de inhibición de conducta (SIC) y funciones ejecutivas (FE) en excombatientes del conflicto armado colombiano.


Metodología: Estudio observacional, exploratorio, con muestra no aleatoria de 39 excombatientes del programa de la Alta Consejería de la Presidencia para la Reintegración, residentes en Antioquia-Colombia, edad 35±7.6 años, 87.2% hombres, y escolaridad 10±2.8 grados; comparados con un grupo control de 14 no combatientes (edad 33±6.1 años, 71.4% hombres y escolaridad 10±2.7 grados). Se les administró un cuestionario de SAC/SIC, usando la sensibilidad a la recompensa (SR) y la sensibilidad al castigo (SC). Para la FE se aplicó la prueba Ineco Frontal Screening (IFS).


Resultados: Hubo alteraciones específicas de la FE: en la ejecución de instrucciones conflictivas (IC), memoria de trabajo verbal (MTV) y control inhibitorio verbal (CIV). Se evidenciaron correlaciones directas, con coeficientes de moderados a altos entre el SAC (SR) y la capacidad de abstracción CA, el control motor inhibitorio (CMI), la MTV, la memoria de trabajo espacial (MTE) y el funcionamiento ejecutivo global (IFSTOT).


Conclusiones: Los excombatientes presentaron un rendimiento inferior en la memoria de trabajo verbal y el control inhibitorio verbal, lo que impacta las capacidades de anticipación, establecimiento de metas, diseño de planes, iniciación de conductas voluntarias y el control inhibitorio. Lo anterior puede generar la toma de decisiones equivocadas.

Palabras clave:
executive function, activities of daily living, armed conflicts, neuropsychiatry función ejecutiva, actividades cotidianas, conflictos armados, neuropsiquiatría função executiva, atividades cotidianas, conflitos armados, neuropsiquiatria

Detalles del artículo

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