Teología etnográfica: integración de las Ciencias Sociales y la reflexión teológica

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Gerardo Martí
  • Biografía

    Department of Sociology, Davidson College, USA.

Resumen

Los teólogos están adoptando ampliamente la investigación etnográfica para realizar su trabajo teológico. Sin embargo, dado que la mayoría de ellos no están suficientemente capacitados en métodos científicos sociales, su sofisticación con esta metodología es limitada, lo que genera distorsiones en las observaciones registradas y las interpretaciones ofrecidas. Este ensayo busca abordar esta falta de profundidad al articular algunas de las sensibilidades más esenciales que son cruciales para las mejores prácticas asociadas con la erudición ejemplar que emerge en la intersección entre la etnografía y la teología. Entre las distinciones más importantes que los teólogos deben reconocer está una distinción simple y heurística entre “teologías encontradas” y “teologías impuestas”. Los etnógrafos saben que reportar nuestros hallazgos siempre implica examinar de manera cuidadosa las suposiciones que pueden restringir involuntariamente lo que reconocemos, sin hablar de “lo que vemos”. La distinción ofrecida entre “teologías encontradas” y “teologías impuestas” sirve para recordar a los trabajadores de campo preocupados por la teología que los ideales y prejuicios no examinados, así como los valores y las convicciones profundamente arraigados, pueden dirigir radicalmente nuestra atención y remodelar creativamente nuestras percepciones. También permite un enfoque perspicaz sobre la dinámica del poder, así como la inclusión de los pueblos marginados. Mi modesto objetivo, por lo tanto, es equipar mejor a los académicos teológicamente orientados para producir obras originales, social y científicamente concienzudas, mas sustancialmente ricas y responsables que innoven aún más el uso de la metodología de las ciencias sociales entre los teólogos. En última instancia, al fundamentar aún más la ética de la práctica etnográfica entre teólogos, los estudiantes y los académicos acentuarán la integridad de los hallazgos y producirán corrientes de erudición que fomentarán las teologías insospechadas y urgentemente necesitadas del futuro.

Palabras clave:
Etnografía, Teología etnográfica, Investigación en ciencias sociales, Teologizar, Método teológico, Construcción teológica, Metodología Ethnography, Ethnographic Theology, Social Science Research, Theologizing, Theological Method, Theological Construction, Methodology

Detalles del artículo

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