Relación entre funcionamiento cognitivo y el perfil sintomático con la calidad de vida de pacientes con trastornos del espectro de la esquizofrenia

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Ana Milena Gaviria Gómez
Gloria Queralt
Maite Martínez
Lidia Novillo
Noelia Salcedo
Elisabet Vilella

Resumen

Objetivo: evaluar la asociación de los síntomas psicopatológicos y el funcionamiento cognitivo con las medidas de calidad de vida subjetiva en pacientes con diagnósticos del espectro de la esquizofrenia.


Metodología: se incluyeron 102 pacientes ambulatorios que cumplían criterios DSM-IVTR para el diagnóstico de alguno de los trastornos del espectro de la esquizofrenia. Los datos se obtuvieron utilizando el Cuestionario Sevilla de Calidad de Vida, la Escala para el síndrome positivo y negativo de la esquizofrenia (PANSS), el Inventario de depresión de Beck y el Inventario de Ansiedad estado/rasgo.


Resultados: el análisis de regresión múltiple mostró que los aspectos favorables de la calidad de vida están afectados por la desorganización cognitiva, los síntomas positivos, depresivos y ansiosos. Por otra parte, la presencia de síntomas de carácter emocional está fuertemente asociada a los aspectos desfavorables, lo que hace pensar que esta dimensión sintomática deteriora la percepción subjetiva de bienestar de los pacientes con trastornos del espectro de la esquizofrenia.


Conclusiones: los síntomas psicopatológicos y la función cognitiva afectan la calidad de vida subjetiva en pacientes con esquizofrenia. Si el objetivo con el tratamiento es lograr que mejore la calidad de vida percibida, las estrategias deben considerar la búsqueda de la mejoría de los síntomas de carácter emocional, como la depresión, la ansiedad y el malestar emocional.

Palabras clave:
cognition, quality of life, regression analysis, schizophrenia cognición, calidad de vida, análisis de regresión, esquizofrenia conhecimento, qualidade de vida, análise de regressão, esquizofrenia

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