Embarazo, trauma obstétrico y sus efectos sobre el piso pélvico. Revisión de la literatura

Barra lateral del artículo

Contenido principal del artículo

Diana Catalina Jaramillo González
  • Biografía

    Residente de Ginecología y Obstetricia. Universidad Pontifica Bolivariana, Medellín, Colombia.

Mauricio Gómez Londoño
  • Biografía

    Ginecología y Obstetricia. Universidad Pontificia Bolivariana, Medellín, Colombia. Subespecialista en uroginecología, Universidad Chile, Santiago de Chile, Chile.

Luis Guillermo Echavarría Restrepo
  • Biografía

    Ginecología y Obstetricia. Universidad Pontificia Bolivariana. Magíster en Epidemiología. Universidad CES. Medellín, Colombia.

Resumen

Los trastornos del piso pélvico son una condición que afecta al 30% de las mujeres de todas las edades, e incluyen un abanico de patologías anatómicas y funcionales que, aunque no alteran la supervivencia de las pacientes, sí afectan en gran medida su calidad de vida. Dentro de estas patologías encontramos la incontinencia urinaria y fecal, el prolapso de órganos pélvicos y la disfunción sexual. La importancia del tema radica en que los trastornos del piso pélvico son más frecuentes después del embarazo y el parto por los cambios inherentes al embarazo mismo y por el trauma obstétrico que son factores de riesgo conocidos y que pueden estar asociados con secuelas graves del piso pélvico. Es por ello que se deben prever posibles complicaciones en el trabajo de parto que puedan aumentar el riesgo de trastornos del piso pélvico e implementar ciertas estrategias de prevención y de intervenciones seguras, que minimicen los daños y las secuelas que se producen en el largo plazo. A continuación haremos una revisión de la literatura sobre los cambios fisiológicos del embarazo en el piso pélvico, los trastornos disfuncionales más frecuentes, el papel del parto intervenido en la aparición de estos trastornos y las estrategias de prevención que pueden implementarse para disminuir los efectos sobre el piso pélvico.

Palabras clave:
pregnancy, pelvic floor, urinary incontinence, obstetrical forceps, episiotomy embarazo, diafragma pélvico, incontinencia urinaria, fórceps obstétrico, episiotomía gravidez, diafragma da pelve, incontinência urinária, forceps obstétrico, episiotomia

Detalles del artículo

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