Epigenética de la endometriosis y su perspectiva terapéutica en el marco de un sistema integral de atención de la infertilidad: revisión y propuesta de investigación

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Contenido principal del artículo

Alejandro Leal Esquivel
  • Biografía

    Sección de Genética y Biotecnología, Escuela de Biología, Universidad de Costa Rica

Fabio Alfaro Albertazzi
  • Biografía

    Sección de Ginecología y Obstetricia, Escuela de Medicina, Universidad de Costa Rica

José M. Uribe Salazar
  • Biografía

    Sección de Genética y Biotecnología, Escuela de Biología, Universidad de Costa Rica.

Resumen

La endometriosis consiste en la presencia ectópica de glándulas endometriales y células estromales fuera de la cavidad uterina (principalmente en ovarios y superficies de órganos internos de la cavidad pélvica). Es uno de los desórdenes ginecológicos benignos más comunes en las mujeres que están en edad reproductiva. Hay diversas teorías para explicar la endometriosis. La más aceptada es la denominada “menstruación retrógrada”. Las mujeres con endometriosis presentan dolor en la región pélvica-abdominal, dismenorrea, dispareunia, mucho sangrado en la menstruación, dolor pélvico no-menstrual, dolor al ovular, disquecia, disuria, fatiga crónica y sub-fertilidad. Diversos estudios han relacionado la endometriosis con aparición de cáncer ovárico, con un desarrollo de carcinomas en 5% - 10% de los casos de mujeres con endometriomas ováricos. El desarrollo efectivo de estrategias terapéuticas para el control de la endometriosis depende de una correcta identificación de los patrones epigenéticos y de genes candidatos, que serían el blanco en los tratamientos.

Palabras clave:
endometriosis, therapeutics, genetics, phenotype, genotype endometriosis, terapéutica, genética, fenotipo, genotipo endometriose, terapêutica, genética, fenótipo, genótipo

Detalles del artículo

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