Características de la Cognición Social en infractores de la ley: Revisión teórica

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Catalina Quintero López
  • Biografía

    Universidad Católica Luis Amigó, Medellín, Colombia

Víctor Daniel Gil Vera
  • Biografía

    Universidad Católica Luis Amigó, Medellín, Colombia

Luis Eduardo De Ángel Martínez
  • Biografía

    Universidad Católica Luis Amigó, Medellín, Colombia

Alejandra Vanesa Bustamante Hernández
  • Biografía

    Universidad Católica Luis Amigó, Medellín, Colombia

Resumen

Los jóvenes infractores de la ley con estructura antisocial tienen alteraciones en la cognición social, lo que se ve reflejado en la dificultad para interactuar con los demás de manera adecuada y ponerse en el lugar del otro como símbolo empático. Se presentan los hallazgos de una revisión sistemática de literatura para dar respuesta a las siguientes preguntas de investigación: ¿Cuáles son las características de la empatía y simpatía en infractores de la ley? ¿Cuáles son las características del razonamiento moral en infractores de la ley?. Se revisaron artículos, libros y publicaciones especializadas en bases de datos científicas. Se concluye que el infractor de la ley con estructura antisocial tiene un funcionamiento neurobiológico diferente al delicuente común, específicamente en las áreas cerebrales asociadas a las respuestas de empatía, simpatía y razonamiento moral; en estos se activan respuestas biológicas placenteras frente a situaciones que generan en la mayoría de la población sentimientos de compasión y dolor. Los hallazgos reportan que las personas con estructura antisocial sienten satisfacción ante el dolor del prójimo, demostrando afectaciones en la cognición social, siendo éste un tema de interés y actualidad para las neurociencias y la neuropsicología social.

Palabras clave:
Neuropsychology, personality, juvenile delinquency, cognition, affectivity Neuropsicología, personalidad, delincuencia juvenil, cognición, afectividad Neuropsicologia, personalidade, delinquência juvenil, cognição, afetividade

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