Actualización en fracturas supracondíleas del codo en la infancia

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Camilo José Peña Cardona
Laura María Medina Madrid
Clara Inés Trujillo González3
Alonso de Jesús Peña López
Verónica González González

Resumen

Las supracondíleas son el tipo más común de fracturas en la articulación del codo durante la infancia, con un pico de presentación entre los cinco y siete años. Además constituyen el segundo tipo de fracturas más frecuente en la población pediátrica en general. El mecanismo típico de la lesión es una caída desde la altura del paciente sobre la palma de la mano con el codo en hiperextensión. El diagnóstico se basa en la sospecha clínica, según el mecanismo de la lesión y la edad del paciente, además de la radiografía simple del codo en dos proyecciones. La clasificación de Gartland es la más usada para establecer la gravedad de la fractura y guiar el tratamiento, que puede ser ortopédico en fracturas no desplazadas. El método de elección para corrección de las desplazadas es la reducción cerrada y fijación con pines percutáneos. La complicación más común es la neuropraxia del nervio mediano. Otras complicaciones son la lesión de la arteria braquial, el síndrome compartimental, la isquemia de Volkmann, el deslizamiento de los pines y el cúbito varo.

Palabras clave:
fractures, bone, elbow, compartment síndromes fracturas óseas, codo, síndromes compartimentales fraturas ósseas, cotovelo, síndromes compartimentais

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Referencias

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